Saturday, February 8, 2020

Criticize the Cosmological Argument against Atheism Essay

Criticize the Cosmological Argument against Atheism - Essay Example It is also true because science and common sense has confirmed that something cannot come into existence from nothing. The premise also states that the reason why no one has seen something come into existence from nothing is proof that there is a cause for things to come into being (Rutten 45). The first premise has an intuitive appeal. It states that whatever comes into existence has a cause. The cause is what creates something. This means that the universe was impelled by a natural inclination. This is true because nothing in this world has ever come into existence out of nothing. This rebuttal tries to prove that there is no existence of God and that everything happened from nothing. However, supporters of the first premise argument object this rebuttal. The main response to this rebuttal is through the argument that all things which have a beginning in their own existence do have a cause. This means that God was not created. Unlike the universe, God did not come into existence. He has always existed even before the world came into existence (Craig 56). The second premise explains that the world began to exist. This means that the existence of the universe has a beginning. This is supported by the fact that the universe keeps on expanding and growing. The universe has over the years continued to grow and expand from an enormously dense and extremely hot state (Craig 65). This suggests that the universe started from something and continues to grow. However, the premise can be considered to be false due to one main assumption. The assumption is that it’s easy to also take into consideration that the universe, just like the initial cause, has always been in existence and continues to exist. This assumption also puts into consideration that the universe goes through an everlasting cycle of contraction and expansion. A

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay Example for Free

Joseph Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay When Marlow talks of London being a dark place, the theme of civilization versus savagery comes into play. Marlows aunt believes he is an emissary of light, being sent into the darkness. Marlow sees this darkness through the placing of heads on poles, for a man named Kurtz. All of this makes Marlow change his inner feelings of himself, which relates to the theme of the journey of the inner self. Marlow talks of when the Romans first came to Britain, and how they had actually brought some light into the somberness of London, and how one day that light may disappear. This relates to the theme of dark and light. As Marlow tells of his voyage deeper into the unknown, his capacity for self-control is tested. Kurtz seems to inhabit his every thought. While this is happening, the theme of a journey into the inner self is seen again. There are certain patterns in Heart of Darkness; one of these is the theme of threes. There are three chapters, three women, three times Marlow breaks the story, three stations, three central characters and three views of Africa. Marlow indirectly suggests by referring to the Roman conquest, that the theme of colonialism has existed since the earliest times of human history. Colonialism is seen as one of the major themes in the book. When Marlow talks of London once being a dark place, the theme of civilization versus savagery comes into play. The book implies that civilizations are created by the setting of laws and codes that encourage men to achieve higher standards. London itself is seen as a symbol of enlightenment. We see this through Marlow and how he tells his crew that the Romans had brought a light into the darkness of Britain. Marlow and Kurtz are two antithetical examples of humanity. Kurtz represents what every man will become if left to his own desires, without a  protective, civilized society. Marlow represents the civilized soul that has not been drawn back into savagery by his heart of darkness. The book implies that every man has a heart of darkness that is usually drowned out by the light of civilization. However, when a man is removed from a civilized environment, the basic instinct of savagery must be unleashed. Savagery is linked to darkness, and in most parts of the book, we see Marlow  as the light in this darkness. Marlows aunt believes he is an emissary of light, being sent into the darkness. Marlow sees the darkness through the placing of heads on poles, for a man named Kurtz. All of this makes Marlow change his inner feelings about himself, which relates to the theme of the journey of the inner self. Through Marlow, the book creates a voyage of self-discovery. All of Marlows experiences point to a change him. The thoughts about the people he meets, and their behavior, slowly begins to change. Marlows trip from Europe to the outer, then central station tests his capacity to discriminate between good and evil, since he witnesses actions which directly ask him for a moral judgment, such as brutal beating of the native worker. Marlows detailed account of what he sees, shows his compassion. Conrad suggests that those who are unable of controlling their unconscious side, run the risk of losing control the their heart of darkness. Marlow talks of when the Romans first came to Britain, and how they brought light into the somberness of London. He also tells them that one day that light may disappear. This relates to the theme of dark and light. In Heart of Darkness, there is an obvious contrast between what is light and what is dark. Light seems to represent civilization, or the civilized side of humanity whilst dark represents the uncivilized or savage side of humanity. In this book, dark and light or black and white, have the same usual connotations of good and evil. According to Christianity, in  the beginning, everything was dark. The same thing applies to London before the Romans came. At the same time, Africa was considered dark, as most of it had not yet been discovered. However, as Marlows journey progresses, it appears that dark and light are used counter intuitively. Darkness refers to truth and light refers to falsehood. In Marlows interview with the Intended, the windows of the room, which are normally a source of light, are covered and let in little to no light at all, as in a mortuary. The cold and monumental whiteness of the fireplace adds to the deathlike atmosphere. This shows that Conrad had used dark and light inversely. We could assume that the dark could represent the unknown. As Marlow talks of his voyage deeper into this unknown, his capacity for self-control is tested. Kurtz seems to inhabit his every thought. While this is happening, the theme of a journey into the self and the unconsciousness is seen again. Marlows story clearly implies that the kind of world men make for themselves, and for others, results from the character of individual behavior. Kurtz appears to be stuck inside Marlows head. Every thought is focused in this man he has never met. Kurtz wins control of men through fear. His power over the natives almost destroys Marlow. Kurtz is actually a victim of the managers murderous cruelty. It is possible that Kurtz might never have revealed his evil nature, had he not been tortured by the manager. Marlow struggles with himself, the person he thought he was turns out to be a nobody. Marlow sees the real person he is, and fears himself. After seeing the Kurtz, Marlow realizes how much like Kurtz he has become and regains control from his heart of darkness. There are patterns noticeable in this book. One of these is the theme of threes. There are three chapters, three times Marlow breaks the story, three stations, three women, three central characters and three views of Africa. The three stations are the inner station, the central station  and the outer station. These are symbolic of the stages in Marlows journey of self-discovery. The inner station is the first station he goes to. Here, he sees how the natives are treated, and gets a glimpse of the things he may have to face in his future travels. He reaches the central station, and discovers that Kurtz may not be the man he first heard of. He was told that Kurtz was this wonderful man, who had plenty of power. Now, Marlow is beginning to see in his mind, someone that has followed his own ideas, and doesnt care about anyone else. He struggles within himself to see if he is like this man. At first, he dismisses the idea that he could ever be that  kind of person, but soon after, he changes his opinion. The outer station is where Kurtz is finally reached. Conrad also uses imperialism as a major theme in the book. Marlow indirectly suggests by referring to the Roman conquest over Britain, that the theme of imperialism has existed since early human history. As Marlow tells his story, a different narrator, who is also a member on the ship they are traveling on, sees the Roman invaders to be like the English conquerors. He expresses that they were both hunters for gold and pursuers of fame. He does not understand that without the Roman invasion, Britain may have remained a dark country. Through Marlows tale of truth, pain, anxiety and the quest for complete knowledge, the major themes are revealed. Colonialism, the journey of the inner-self, the theme of threes, dark and light and civilization versus savagery. All of these themes lead to the understanding that Marlows voyage into the deepness of the Congo, is symbolic of the journey he had to take into the deepest side of himself. He successfully battled with his savage side, and came out a changed man. It just shows that no matter hoe perfect something seems to be, there is always a heart of darkness deep within somewhere.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Mainstreaming Disabled Students Essay -- Teaching Education Inclusion

Mainstreaming Disabled Students According to the Curry School of Education, approximately 80% of students with learning disabilities receive the majority of their instruction in the general classroom (â€Å"Inclusion.† http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/curry/dept/cise/ose.html. 10 Oct. 1999). That number is expected to rise as teachers and parents become aware of the benefits of inclusion. Because there are so many disabled students in regular schools, it is important to look at whether or not mainstreaming is necessary for their education. For parents, having their disabled children mainstreamed into regular education can be a difficult choice. Although disabled children’s education can be more challenging in regular schools, the benefits of inclusion include enhanced self-esteem, development of social skills, and exposure to regular curriculum. Many people believe mainstreaming only helps disabled children, but there are many challenges that hurt their education rather than help. Both faculty and students can be cruel to disabled students. Because they are not used to interacting with disabled children, faculty and students may be uncomfortable with the situation and be insensitive to the disabled children. By ignoring the disabled children or treating them badly, the children will lose self-esteem and may disrupt the class in order to show their unhappiness. Some teachers are not familiar with teaching disabled children, so the education is lacking for the children....

Monday, January 13, 2020

Multicultural education Essay

From its early beginnings in the 1960s, multicultural education has since been in a constant state of evolution both in theory and in practice (Gorski & Covert 1996). In the last four decades, it has undergone repeated transformation, focusing and conceptualization as challenges emerge one after the other from a rapidly changing population demographics and a significant growth in diverse multicultural groups. The result is a multitude of conceptualizations reflecting different foci but which basically share the same ideals rooted upon the need for transformation or change. Gorski (2000) defines multicultural education as a â€Å"progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings, failings, and discriminatory practices in education†. These shared ideals that include social justice, equity in educational opportunities, and the dedication to help students reach their full potential as learners and as socially conscious and active individuals provide the basis for understanding multicultural education. It is a process of action, through which adults achieve clarity about their condition in this society and ways to change it (Phillips, 1988). Multicultural education acknowledges that schools, among all other institutions, play a pivotal role in building the foundation and acting as major influencing factor for the transformation of society and the elimination of oppression and injustice. The realities of the times clearly speak for the growing importance and relevance of multicultural education. Cultural diversity in schools is indeed one considerable challenge but like any other, it can be a most welcome opportunity. History has shown us that nations are enriched by the ethnic, cultural, and language diversity among its citizens (Banks, 2001). Schools play a significant part in finding ways to harness and redirect cultural diversity into creating unity and progress in schools and ultimately to society in general. References: Banks, J. A. (April 2001). Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society. New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved on May 28, 2009 from http://www. newhorizons. org/strategies/multicultural/banks. htm Gorski, P. & Covert, B. (1996; 2000). Defining multicultural education. Retrieved on May 28, 2009 from http://www. edchange. org/multicultural/define_old. html Phillips, C. B. (1988). Nurturing diversity for today’s children and tomorrow’s leaders. Young Children: 43(2).

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Whats Wrong With Livestock Grazing on Public Lands

The Bureau of Land Management manages 256 million acres of public lands in the United States and allows livestock grazing on 160 million acres of that land. The Taylor Grazing Act, 43 U.S.C.  §315, which was passed in 1934, authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to establish grazing districts and take any necessary steps to protect, improve, and develop the districts. Prior to 1934, the grazing of livestock on public lands was unregulated. Since the first grazing district was established in 1935, private ranchers have paid the federal government for the privilege of grazing their livestock on public lands. Every year, the Bureau of Land Management authorized the grazing of millions of animal units on public lands. An animal unit is one cow and her calf, one horse, or five sheep or goats, although most of the livestock are cattle and sheep. Permits usually run for ten years. Environmental, taxpayer, and wildlife advocates object to the program for different reasons. Environmental Issues While some foodies extol the virtues of grass-fed beef, livestock grazing is a serious environmental concern. According to environmental activist Julian Hatch, public lands are so depleted of vegetation, the cattle’s diet is supplemented with barrels of molasses mixed with nutrients and vitamins. The supplementation is necessary because the cattle have depleted the more nutritious vegetation and are now eating sagebrush. Additionally, waste from the livestock degrades water quality, the concentration of livestock around bodies of water leads to soil compaction, and the depletion of vegetation leads to soil erosion. These problems threaten the entire ecosystem. Taxpayer Issues According to the National Public Lands Grazing Campaign, the livestock industry is subsidized by federal and state funding through â€Å"below-market grazing fees, emergency feed programs, low-interest federal farm loans, and many other taxpayer-funded programs.† Taxpayer dollars are also used to address the environmental problems caused by ranching and the health issues created by the consumption of beef. Wildlife Issues Livestock grazing on public lands also displaces and kills wildlife. Predators like bears, wolves, coyotes, and cougars are killed because they sometimes prey on livestock. Also, because the vegetation is depleted, BLM claims that wild horses are overpopulated and has been rounding up the horses and offering them for sale/adoption. Only 37,000 wild horses still roam these public lands, but BLM wants to round up even more. Comparing 37,000 horses to the 12.5 million animal units the BLM allows for grazing on public lands, the horses comprise less than .3% (three-tenths of a percent) of the animal units on those lands. Aside from the general environmental degradation issues, ranchers erect fences that obstruct the movement of wildlife, reducing access to food and water, and isolating subpopulations. What Is the Solution? While the NPLGC points out that relatively little meat is produced by ranchers on public lands and advocates buying out the ranchers who hold permits, this solution focuses on continuing the meet the American demand for beef and fails to consider animal rights issues or the environmental impacts of growing crops to feed cows in feedlots. The solution is to go vegan.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Essay on Juvenile Offenders - 699 Words

Juvenile Offenders Should Juveniles be waived to adult court Philosophy 14 Nov 98 Should juveniles be waived to adult court. There has been tension between teens (pre-teens) and adults for thousands of years, and the question how to deal with the youth of a culture, in a punishment sense, has been with us for just as long. Socrates, for example, stated that children show little respect for there elders. Since Socrates time largely due to the spread of guns and drugs, younger and younger children are committing violent crimes. Children that have special needs or have committed a criminal act have been subject to state protection since, 1838. The first juvenile court was established in Chicago in 1890. The assumption, that was made†¦show more content†¦In cases where the offender is younger than 16 the prosecutor must show why the juvenile should be waived. One of main issues of side A, is that if the offender is too old the sentence would not be severe enough for the crime that had been committ ed. Another issue is the overcrowding of the juvenile justice system. Many of the offenders in the juvenile system, if a few years older, would have already been sentenced to life sentences in an adult court. Side A does not believe that a persons age should be the lone determining factor for non-waiver. While side A does believe that there are a great many negative influences on todays youth, they believe that these circumstances do not dismiss that crimes that have been committed. The core belief that most of the side A advocates share is, the belief that the small percentage of the juveniles that are committing the serious crimes are past the point where a juvenile court could be of any help. Side A truly feels that by allowing serious juvenile offenders to be waived to adult court, thus receiving a stiffer sentence, the community, as a hole, will be much better served. Side B believes, essentially, that no child (juvenile) should be waived. Side B sees several key factors for th e rise in juvenile crime. These reasons are ones that are out of the control ofShow MoreRelatedIs Juvenile Sex Offenders?1741 Words   |  7 PagesI. Juvenile Sex Offenders The focus of this paper is juvenile sex offenders. We believe that this population is in need of more intensive community-based services, especially for those who are registered as a Megan’s Law Offender and have to follow the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Process. Three case studies will be illustrated in order to demonstrate our motivation to pursue social justice for this population. In summer of 2015, I (Dalynet) sat on a courtroom witnessing how a CarlRead MoreJuvenile Sex Offenders6865 Words   |  28 PagesResearch Paper 2 Juvenile sex offenders are frequently treated in the same manner as their adult counterparts with regards to punishment and sex offender registering. â€Å"Nationally, juvenile sex offenders make up 20% of all individuals charged with sexual offenses (McGinnis, 2006).† Placing a sex offender label on a juvenile may unjustifiably put restrictions on his or her opportunities in adulthood so it is for this reason that cases involving juvenile sex offenders should be prosecuted cautiouslyRead MoreJuvenile Female Sex Offenders : Offender And Offence Characteristics933 Words   |  4 PagesWriting Assignment #1 CRIJ 2313-Dr.Koenigsberg 9/17/14 Juvenile Female Sex Offenders Wijkman, Miriam, Catrien Bijleveld, and Jan Hendriks. Juvenile Female Sex Offenders: Offender And Offence Characteristics. European Journal Of Criminology 11.1 (2013): 23-38. European Journal Of Criminology. Web. 14 Sept. 2014. http://euc.sagepub.com/content/11/1/23. For this critical paper I evaluated the article, Juvenile Female Sex Offenders: Offender And Offence Characteristics†. This article conforms toRead MoreBenefits Of Treatment For Juvenile Offenders1934 Words   |  8 Pages The Benefits of Treatment for Juvenile Offenders Tompkins, Patrice Texas State University The Benefits of Treatment for Juvenile Offenders The juvenile justice system is broken in the United States but Louisiana, among many other states, is focusing their efforts into treatment over the incarceration of juvenile offenders According to the New York Times (2015), Louisiana has become a juvenile justice reform leader. State and local leaders have been working hard to make dramaticRead MoreLaws of Juvenile Sexual Offenders Essay1690 Words   |  7 PagesJuvenile Sexual Offenders: Should the Laws Be Adjusted? In today’s society of internet sex crimes being broadcast on the evening news and 60 Minutes doing specials at least once a month. Are we paying enough attention to other sexual crimes and problems, such as the laws pertaining to juvenile sex offenders and their victims? Could more be done to help and protect the perpetrators, victims and their families? It is my opinion that the laws pertaining to juvenile sex offenders need to be adjustedRead MoreJuvenile Sex Offenders Essay example2573 Words   |  11 PagesApproximately 20% of all people charged with a sexual offense are juveniles. Among adult sex offenders, almost 50% report that their first offense occurred during their adolescence. (FBI, 1993) There are many different opinions, treatment options and legislation to manage the growing numbers of juvenile sex offenders. In today’s society the psychological and behavioral modification treatments used to manage juvenile sex offenders is also a growing concern. To understand and determine the proposedRead MoreMandatory Incarceration For Chronic Juvenile Offenders1355 Words   |  6 Pagesresearching materials of mandatory incarceration for chronic juvenile offenders, I had to define ‘What is a chronic juvenile offender?’ It is a young individual who are chronic reoffenders that is arrested on average two years earlier than juvenile offender (age usually 11 or younger). â€Å"The threshold in chronic offending for number of arrests is five. Therefore, youth arrested for the sixth time are extremely likely to later become young chronic offenders. So the use of arrests seems to be more appropriateRead MoreFemale Juvenile Offenders And The Need For Programs2286 Words   |  10 Pages Female Juvenile Offenders and the Need for Programs Sarah Pepe Alvernia University â€Æ' Abstract A major issue in today’s society is female juvenile offenders and the lack of programs available to them. This sparks the great need for programs for them. Females differ greatly from males and require different programs due to the emotional and mental changes between the two. Different approaches and ways to cope as well as heal are required more for girls rather than highly structured and strict approachesRead MorePrison State Of Kentucky And Juvenile Offenders920 Words   |  4 PagesIn the film Prison State, the focus was on the juveniles in the state of Kentucky, specifically individuals living in the Beecher Terrace neighborhood. Beecher Terrace is a low-income area that the majority of detainees lived in. Because individuals grew up in poverty they were predisposed to other risk factors that increased their likelihood of becoming a juvenile delinquent and an adult offender later on in life. Two major issues in the state of Kentucky were the over-crowdedness in the pri sonsRead MoreEfficacy of Sexual Offender Treatment: Juvenile Sexual Offenders with Mental Health Diagnosis2450 Words   |  10 PagesEfficacy of Sexual Offender Treatment: Juvenile Sexual Offenders with Mental Health Diagnosis Lynetric Rivers Liberty University Abstract Juvenile sex offending has been on the rise over the past ten years. Juvenile sex offenders are best described between the ages of 12 and 17 years old. It has often been thought the percentage of sexual disorders in relation to juvenile sex offenders have been low. It is very possible they have simply been misdiagnosed. Dr. Fong describes hypersexual

Friday, December 20, 2019

Wrongful Incarceration Of The United States - 2936 Words

Front-Line and Predisposing Contributors to Wrongful Incarceration The United States prides itself on having robust, deeply entrenched measures implemented across its core agencies, including the police and criminal justice system, to safeguard against wrongfully convicting people who, after further reflection, are factually found to be innocent. As citizens, we have been educated to trust, among other things, that our systems protect the notions that one is innocent until proven guilty and that prosecution must prove any charges beyond a reasonable doubt. Yet, wrongful convictions are more prevalent than we might think. In particular, the publicity of hundreds of cases over the last few decades has put a spotlight on this indisputable†¦show more content†¦Throughout the chain of events involved in the identification of a suspect, wrongful incarcerations occur as a result of various unintentional errors, flaws and abuses made by the key government agencies that each have a stake in this process. The police serve as the initial point of contact for crimes, generally speaking, because they operate on the front lines. Even if we assume that the police do not catch the criminal red-handed, in their duty to promote public safety, the police will typically be responsible for following a set of pre-trial, investigative procedures that aim to yield identification of the perpetrator. Their main function in pursuit of this goal is to find out what happened overall by determining all facts and collecting all information relevant to the case. Most commonly, the police will rely upon eyewitness identification and testimony as the primary means to identify suspects. For instance, eyewitnesses can be brought to a local police department and led into a room, where a photo lineup of possible suspects takes place (O’Connor, 2010). However, historically, there have been numerous flaws in how law enforcement officials tend to handle these interactions. These arise repeatedly while administering lineups because of various, unintentional missteps taken by either a police officer or a detective. As an example, in a photo lineup, the administrator merely knowing some small, yet key pieces of